Fish oil contains omega-3 fatty acids, types of fat important for certain body processes. Omega-3 fatty acids may help reduce a person’s blood pressure. However, their effect on cholesterol is controversial.
Although the body can make very small amounts of DHA and EPA from ALA, it’s important to take in DHA and EPA through food and/or supplementation.
Read on to learn more about the effects of fish oil on cholesterol and blood pressure, how much to consume, and other health benefits.
Cholesterol is a fatty substance in a person’s blood. The liver makes all of the cholesterol the body needs to build new cells and create certain hormones. However, people ingest
Cholesterol moves through the body in lipoproteins. There are many types of lipoproteins, but the two main types are:
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL): LDL is “bad” cholesterol. If a person has too much LDL in their blood, it can build up on the walls of their arteries. This buildup can lead to problems, such as a heart attack or stroke.
Triglycerides are another type of fat in the blood the body uses for energy. Having a combination of low HDL, high LDL, and high triglycerides can
The effect of fish oil on cholesterol is controversial.
Older information from the journal American Family Physician notes that omega-3 fatty acid supplements could reduce triglyceride levels in a person’s blood. However, the authors note that omega-3 fatty acids may also increase a person’s LDL levels.
In contrast, research from 2021 found an association between increases in blood DHA and a reduction in LDL levels. Additionally, researchers found that fish oil supplements did not increase LDL levels.
However, this study mostly involves males with normal blood lipid levels. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings.
- a reduction in LDL levels
- an increase in HDL levels
- a reduction in triglyceride levels
- a reduction in total cholesterol levels
Researchers also found that people who took 2 g of an omega-3 supplement daily saw an increase in their LDL levels after 2 months.
What does the American Heart Association recommend?
The American Heart Association (AHA) recommends taking prescription omega-3 to help lower very high triglycerides greater than or equal to
A person with high cholesterol should speak with a doctor before they begin taking supplements or modifying their diet. Supplements are not suitable as replacements for prescription medications.
The AHA suggests that
A 2022 meta-analysis concluded that people consuming
The AHA also found that people with hypertension had a greater reduction in blood pressure when taking omega-3 than people with normal blood pressure.
Fish and other seafood contain fish oil. The amount of omega-3 can vary depending on the type of fish.
Fish with lower fat content, such as cod, tilapia, and shellfish, have lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids.
Certain foods may contain added omega-3, such as:
- soy beverages
Plant oils contain ALA, another form of omega-3 fatty acid. ALA is present in:
However, a 2019 article suggests that the body is only able to convert around 5–8% of ALA into EPA, suggesting that other sources may be more beneficial.
A person can consume fish oil via the food they eat or in supplement form.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends consuming
Fish oil supplements generally contain 300 milligrams (mg) per capsule. However, the amount of omega-3 contained within fish or supplements can vary.
Additionally, taking 2–15 g of EPA or EPA plus DHA daily may increase a person’s bleeding time. However, a 5 g combined daily dose of EPA and DHA is a safe amount to take over a long period.
Furthermore, people with cardiovascular disease (CVD), or those at risk of CVD, may have a slightly increased risk of an irregular heartbeat after taking 4 g of omega-3 supplements daily over several years.
If a person is taking other medications, they should speak with a doctor before taking omega-3 supplements.
Treatments for high cholesterol and blood pressure include lifestyle changes and medications. The
- reduce high cholesterol and blood pressure
- prevent or delay high blood pressure development
- enhance blood pressure medication effectiveness
- lower the risk of a heart attack, stroke, heart failure, kidney damage, vision loss, and sexual dysfunction
A person at risk of high cholesterol or blood pressure should try to maintain a healthy lifestyle. This can include:
Fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids, which may be able to reduce a person’s blood pressure. However, their effect on cholesterol levels is controversial.
Omega-3 fatty acids are present in fish and seafood, plant oils, and fortified foods. The American Heart Association recommends a person eat two portions of fish per week.
Fish oil may also benefit other health conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis. It generally has mild side effects, although high amounts may cause issues, such as bleeding.
A person with high cholesterol or blood pressure should speak with a doctor before they begin taking supplements or changing their diet.