The #1 Best Fruit to Lower Your Cholesterol, Says Science — Eat This Not That – Eat This, Not That

Having high cholesterol can be a scary thing. Although your body needs certain levels of cholesterol for optimum functioning, too much of it can lead to clogged arteries and a higher risk of heart disease.

Thankfully, you can help maintain healthy cholesterol levels by adopting a healthy diet. However, it may be overwhelming to decide which foods you need to eat in order to keep your numbers at bay.

There are many different types of food that can help your cholesterol numbers, and according to research, apples contain an ingredient that has been known to have cholesterol-lowering properties.

Continue reading to learn about why apples are one of the best fruits you can eat to lower your cholesterol, and for more healthy eating tips, check out Best Breakfast Habits to Lower Cholesterol.

Apples are the best fruit to lower cholesterol.

According to Harvard Health, there are many different foods that can help you lower your cholesterol in their own unique ways. For example, oats can help because of their high fiber content, while certain fish can aid in lowering cholesterol because of their omega-3 levels.

So what is it about apples specifically that makes them the best cholesterol-lowering fruit? Apples are one of the fruits with the highest amount of fiber, and they contain a specific type of soluble fiber called pectin.

According to Mayo Clinic, soluble fiber can help lower your LDL (low-density lipoprotein) levels by reducing how much cholesterol is absorbed into your bloodstream.

And a study published in the European Journal of Nutrition found that not only does pectin fiber help reduce cholesterol, but that the pectin found in apples was some of the best for cholesterol-lowering from fruit sources.

Avocados are the runner-up fruit

avocado brown paper bag

Another fruit that may help lower cholesterol, which some may not even realize is a fruit, is avocado! This fruit is a reliable source of healthy fat, and according to Harvard Health, healthy fats can replace unhealthier ones, which in turn can help reduce cholesterol levels.

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Anxiety and PTSD linked to increased myelin in brain’s gray matter: Resilience to stress and differential symptoms correlate with regional changes in the brain – Science Daily

A recent study links anxiety behavior in rats, as well as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in military veterans, to increased myelin — a substance that expedites communication between neurons — in areas of the brain associated with emotions and memory.

The results, reported by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, and UC San Francisco (UCSF), provide a possible explanation for why some people are resilient and others vulnerable to traumatic stress, and for the varied symptoms — avoidance behavior, anxiety and fear, for example — triggered by the memory of such stress.

If, as the researchers suspect, extreme trauma causes the increased myelination, the findings could lead to treatments — drugs or behavioral interventions — that prevent or reverse the myelin production and lessen the aftereffects of extreme trauma.

Myelin is a layer of fatty substances and proteins that wraps around the axons of neurons — essentially, the insulation around the brain’s wiring — to facilitate long-distance transmission of signals and, thus, communication between distant areas of the brain. The inner regions of the brain look white — in fact, they are referred to as “white matter” — because of the myelin encasing the many large bundles of axons there.

But the new study finds increased myelination of axons in so-called “gray matter,” where most of the cell bodies of neurons reside and most of the wiring is less insulated with myelin. The extra myelination was found primarily in areas associated with memory.

Researchers at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center conducted brain MRI scans of 38 veterans — half with PTSD, half without — and found an increase in myelination in the gray matter of those with PTSD compared to that seen in the brains of those not suffering from PTSD.

Colleagues at UC Berkeley, meanwhile, discovered a similar increase in myelination in the gray matter of adult rats subjected to an acute stressful event. While not all rats showed long-term effects from the stress — just as not all traumatized veterans develop PTSD — those that did had increased myelination in specific areas of the brain associated with particular symptoms of stress that was identical to what UCSF physicians found in veterans with PTSD.

Both veterans with PTSD and stressed rats that exhibited avoidance behavior, for example, had increased myelination in the hippocampus, often thought of as the seat of memory. Those exhibiting a fear response had increased myelination in the amygdala, which plays a key role in our response to strong emotions, such as fear or pleasure. Those suffering from anxiety had increased myelination in the dentate gyrus, a region critical to learning and memory.

“The combination of these studies in rats with our population of veterans with post traumatic stress disorders is, to me, really exciting,” said senior author Dr. Thomas Neylan, director of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD) Clinic and the Stress and Health Research Program at the San Francisco VA. “At least it’s another mechanism to think about as we develop new treatments. If we see enduring ability to shape myelin content in an adult brain, maybe treatments will help reverse this. That’s where we want to go next with this.”

People — and rats — vary in their response to stress

The correlation between the symptoms and the region of myelination was discovered because UC Berkeley researchers subjected the rats to a battery of more than a dozen tests to assess their specific behavioral response to acute stress.

“We understand that there’s a lot of individual variation in humans, but with rats, they’re genetically identical, so you think when you expose them to stress you’re going to get the same response,” said senior author Daniela Kaufer, UC Berkeley professor of integrative biology. “But the response is extremely variable. They sort of fall into groups, such that some are really resilient, and some are vulnerable. And the ones that are vulnerable are vulnerable in different ways: Some show avoidance behavior, and some show fear learning problems, and some show startle responses that are exaggerated.”

According to Neylan, similar individuality is seen in people with PTSD. The new study suggests that the specific symptoms are related to which areas of the brain are being newly myelinated.

“There’s a lot of heterogeneity across different people with PTSD; it’s not one size fits all. Every PTSD patient generally has a mix of different symptoms,” said Neylan, professor-in-residence in psychiatry at the UC San Francisco Weill Institute for Neurosciences. “Some people are very avoidant. Some people are very hyperreactive. The idea is that if you can show that these different symptom clusters have different neural circuitry, it might actually lead us closer to subtyping people in a way that we could be more targeted in our treatment.”

The researchers, who published their results in December 2021 in the journal Translational Psychiatry, show that stress produces more of the brain’s glial cells, called oligodendrocytes, which wrap around the axons of neurons and make the myelin. The increased myelin produced by these new oligodendrocytes could affect the speed of connections between neurons, making some connections hyperresponsive.

“In the gray matter of your cortex, most of the dendrites and axons — the projections that come out of the neurons that help establish communications with other neurons — can form thousands of connections, and most of them are unmyelinated,” Neylan said. “But if experience leads you to start to lay down myelin to strengthen certain connections, let’s say your ability to respond quickly to a fearful stimulus, you can speed up that circuit, but you lose the kind of broader adaptive flexibility that you normally would have with mostly unmyelinated axons and dendrites. People with PTSD become almost like a one-note musician — they really know how to respond to fear. But that enhanced, quick response to fear may diminish their adaptive flexibility for non-fear-type behavior.”

Acute stress boosts oligodendrocytes

In 2014, Kaufer and her UC Berkeley colleagues discovered that rats subjected to acute stress produced more oligodendrocytes in the brain’s gray matter — specifically, in the hippocampus. She proposed that this led to increased myelination of axons, potentially interfering with the speed at which signals traveled between different areas of the gray matter of the brain, such as the hippocampus and the amygdala. The new study bolsters that theory.

Neylan was intrigued by the 2014 findings and contacted Kaufer, and they’ve been collaborating ever since. Neylan teamed up with Linda Chao, UCSF professor of radiology, who developed a way to image myelin in the gray matter of the brain, and several years ago scanned the brains of 38 veterans who had experienced severe trauma, some with and some without PTSD.

At the time, scientists looking for changes in myelination related to brain disorders were focused on the cortex’s white matter, which is mostly myelinated. In multiple sclerosis, for example, an autoimmune attack destroys myelin in the white matter. Kaufer was perhaps the first to find evidence of increased myelination in the gray matter associated with disease.

Chao and Neylan did find increased myelination of neurons in the gray matter of veterans with PTSD, but not in those without PTSD. The worse the symptoms, the greater the myelination.

This led Kaufer and first author Kimberly Long, now a UCSF postdoctoral fellow, to see if they could also find increased myelin in gray matter after acute trauma in rats. After they focused on the specific symptoms of individual rats with PTSD, they found a correlation between symptoms and myelination in specific regions of the gray matter.

Chao subsequently reanalyzed the brain scans of her earlier group of 38 veterans and found the same correlation: Specific symptoms were associated with myelination in one region of gray matter, but not others.

Long and Kaufer then employed a type of viral gene therapy to rev up a transcription factor, called olig1, that increases the production of oligodendrocytes from stem cells in the gray matter. When Long injected the virus into the dentate gyrus of rats, the researchers found that this boosted the number of oligodendrocytes and generated symptoms of avoidance, even without any stress.

“The next question was, ‘If I change oligodendrocyte genesis, am I going to change behavior?” Kaufer said. “The beginning of an answer is here in this paper — it’s yes. And now, there’s a lot more to do to really understand that.”

Neylan, Chao and Kaufer are collaborating on further studies, including looking for increased myelin in the brains of PTSD patients who have died, improving fMRI imaging of myelin in the brain, investigating the effects of chronic stress on the brain connections of rats, and using new high-resolution imaging to study the myelin deposition in gray matter.

The work was supported by a grant from National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health (R01MH115020).

Other co-authors of the paper were undergraduates Yurika Kazama, Vivian Roan, Rhea Misra, Anjile An, Kelsey Hu, and Claire Toth and doctoral student Jocelyn Breton of UC Berkeley; UCLA undergraduate Lior Peretz; University of Arizona undergraduate Dyana Muller; University of British Columbia (UBC) doctoral student William Casazza; UBC professor Sara Mostafavi; Boston University neurologist Dr. Bertrand Huber; and researcher Steven Woodward of the VA Palo Alto Health Care System.

Austin Phillips- National Champion and Successful Bodybuilder – University of Illinois Athletics – Fighting Illini

Former Fighting Illini gymnast Austin Phillips has used his success at the University of Illinois to become a successful professional bodybuilder. A member of the 2012 NCAA National championship team and a 2012 High Bar All-American, Phillips began his journey into bodybuilding thanks to a man suggesting the sport in the gym. Using the 2012 team’s mantra of “Pay the Price for Victory (PTPFV)”, Phillips has gone on to win multiple bodybuilding competitions. Read below for more on his story!      

How did you get into bodybuilding, and what made you want to compete in the sport professionally? 

“I honestly just wanted to stay in shape after training every day at Kenney Gym upon graduating and capping off my gymnastics career. I knew absolutely nothing about lifting weights, but when Justin Spring began to incorporate strength training my senior year, I fell in love with it. Fast forward a year and I began to really dive deep into the anatomy of muscular development and different exercises that would help me enhance my overall physique. One day, an older gentleman in the gym asked me if I ever competed in bodybuilding because of my natural physique. I was always genetically a more muscular person as gymnastics laid the foundation for my muscular development. After a few chats he told me to really think about it and gave me information about a competition that was coming up and to just check it out. I laughed it off thinking to myself ‘I just finished wearing spandex and flipping and flexing for people, I’m for sure not going to do it again…with less spandex on.’ I decided to check out the competition anyway out of curiosity and about an hour in, the natural competitor in me knew I could do this and be a professional one day. I read old school books on training from the Golden Era of bodybuilding to the reign of Ronnie Coleman. And the principles of bodybuilding were the exact same as gymnastics. Dedication, Determination, and Consistency.”

How did your time with Illinois men’s gymnastics help prepare you for a career in professional bodybuilding? 

“Confidence for sure! Being a part of Illinois Men’s Gymnastics brought out the confidence in me that I needed not just to become a bodybuilder but to prepare me for the real world. Sure, you fall at times, but you come back to the next event and next day and hold your head up and salute with a smile. Confidence in bodybuilding is so crucial; How you carry yourself separates you from everyone else. You may have flaws in your physique, but with how you pose and present yourself can sway the judges in your favor. Bodybuilding and Gymnastics at the end of the day are so similar. From doing rounds of routines followed by a brutal strength circuit to being on a week of zero carbs while still deadlifting 500lbs until my nose bled, both sports are for a rare breed of individuals. You viciously train in the dark sweating, bleeding every day to present your artwork to someone who actually has no clue what you have been doing but decides the fate of your placing. It’s wild to think about but it’s the honest truth. You get feedback from your coach, judges and other competitors, take it home and work to perfect your craft for the next battle. Only a few will remember but to this day I have the acronym our team came up with on my phone to remind me that I was built for this. PTPFV.. PAY THE PRICE FOR VICTORY!”

What are the accolades you have garnered during your professional career?

I compete as a natural athlete in both a Natural Organization as well as a non-tested organization. Its unique and not many would do it, but I’ve been blessed to be able to compete and defeat competitors who may have an edge on me. My goal was to hold a professional spot in both organizations, as that’s a tough feat for many. The IFBB organization is the NFL of bodybuilding. There are only 5 competitions a year that provide competitors the opportunity to get their pro card. You have to win your entire weight class in order to secure that IFBB pro status.” 

Austin Phillips Career Highlights

2017- OCB Natural Fredericksburg Championships Bodybuilding -1st Place Lightweight (Won my OCB Pro Card) 

2017- NPC Jr Nationals Championships- Bantamweight 1st Place 

2019- NPC Southern California Championships – Lightweight 1st Place 

2021- NPC California Championships Classic Physique Class A/Lightweight BB – 1st Place 2021- NPC USA Championships – Bantamweight – 1st Place (Won my IFBB pro card winning my class) 

Could you explain what you do in terms of preparation and competition in your career?

“Every preparation is mentally and physically different. What you do to your body isn’t all that normal so it does take time for it to adapt to the changes. The most important thing during preparation is time. It’s something that can make or break you when you train in this sport. I personally feel the more time you give yourself the better you have in making the necessary adjustments and have an overall healthier lifestyle. The thing with bodybuilding is it’s so calculated. You have one goal. Lose as much fat as you can while keeping every ounce of muscle and more. My diets are usually 5-6 months long. Starting from an “off season” peak high weight/body fat composition gradually tapering down to -6% body fat levels. The reason I give myself this much time is to train like this is due to the intense weight lifting I do. I challenge myself in the gym during my preparation to not only keep my strength but to exceed it as I drop calories. If I’m squatting 500lbs at the beginning of my training, my goal is to squat that and or even more at the end of the preparation. The muscle memory and strength have not faded but the body fat has been stripped. It’s like the saying ‘slow and steady wins the race.'” 

My goal is to help people in their fitness journey whether they want to just lose weight to getting ready for a wedding or even training for competitions. My goal for 2022 is to engage with more individuals in the journey and use what I have learned to help people who have goals and are needing assistance in achieving them. Please follow me on Instagram @ausphili_ifbbpro!

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Argentina breaks COVID-19 case record as daily infections near 100000 – Reuters

BUENOS AIRES, Jan 6 (Reuters) – Argentina broke its record for COVID-19 infections on Wednesday, approaching 100,000 daily cases as it faces a third wave of the pandemic, driven by the highly infectious Omicron variant.

But the record of 95,159 officially confirmed cases, coming in the middle of the Southern Hemisphere summer holiday season with tourist centers full of travelers, has not translated into a similar exponential rise in COVID-related deaths, which totaled 52.

“We do not have a strong impact on intensive therapy units and less in terms of deaths,” the chief of staff of the Ministry of Health, Sonia Tarragona, told local radio station Urbana Play. “The cases are mild or moderate and they are not putting stress on the health system.”

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Argentina accelerated its vaccination campaign in recent months, which started with the Sputnik V vaccine, then added AstraZeneca and Sinopharm and, later, CanSino, Pfizer and Moderna.

Tarragona said she does not know “what the ceiling for infections is going to be,” but some experts believe the true number among the country’s 45 million population is already significant.

“Today in Argentina we could be quietly at around 150,000 or 200,000 cases of new infections per day,” biochemist Jorge Geffner told Reuters TV.

He estimated that the infection peak could come in mid-January.

Neighboring Brazil had 27,267 new daily cases and 129 deaths, the government said on Wednesday. read more

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Reporting by Agustin Geist and Lucila Sigal; Writing by Hugh Bronstein; Editing by John Stonestreet and Mark Porter

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

Obesity Mediates Diabetes Risk Associated With Cholesterol-Lowering Therapy – Endocrinology Advisor

An increase in body mass index (BMI) partially mediates the greater risk of type 2 diabetes observed with efforts to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, suggesting a need to improve weight gain prevention in patients taking LDL-lowering medications. These findings were published in Diabetes Care.

The study included an assessment of human genetic data to investigate the hypothesis that the T2D-inducing effect of lowering LDL cholesterol is mediated through elevated BMI. Investigators relied on summary-level data from 3 genetic studies comprising 921,908 individuals of European descent to perform univariable and multivariable Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses. The researchers then performed individual-level MR analyses to replicate the results in 92,532 individuals from 14 observational studies.

In univariable MR analyses, the researchers found that a 1-standard deviation (SD) reduction in genetically predicted LDL cholesterol increased T2D odds by 12% (95% CI, 1.01-1.24; P <.001) and increased BMI by 0.07 SD units (95% CI, 0.02-0.12; P <.001).

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Less evidence of a direct effect of lowering LDL cholesterol was observed in T2D through BMI in the multivariable MR analysis (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.08) “with a proportion mediated of 38% of the total effect,” the researchers wrote (P =.03). The investigators found that the total and indirect effect estimates were comparable across several different sensitivity analyses. Additionally, the individual-level MR analyses verified the total indirect effect of reducing LDL cholesterol related to T2D through BMI with an estimated proportion mediated of 8% (P =.04).

The researchers suggest their findings may be biased by bidirectional or pleiotropic effects of the variants that were modeled as instrumental variables, despite the robustness of MR to confounding and measurement error compared with conventional observational methods.

“Our findings support that elevated BMI partially mediates the diabetogenic effects of observed with lowering LDLc,” the researchers concluded. “Further exploration of this mechanism may yield insights into adipose tissue and type 2 diabetes pathophysiology, and targeted weight control strategies may be investigated to mitigate the increased risk of type 2 diabetes among individuals taking LDLc-lowering therapies.

Disclosure: Multiple authors declared affiliations with the pharmaceutical industry. Please see the original reference for a full list of authors’ disclosures.


Wu P, Moon JY, Daghlas I, et al. Obesity partially mediates the diabetogenic effect of lowering LDL cholesterol. Diabetes Care. Published online November 17, 2021. doi:10.2337/dc21-1284

Leading a Healthy Lifestyle With Parkinson’s in 2022 – Parkinson’s News Today

After a Parkinson’s diagnosis, life can become a stream of “what ifs” and “I can’ts.” While it’s true that life changes with the disease, there are still many things we can do, including exercising, practicing mindfulness, and eating a healthy diet.

Many ring in the new year by promising to exercise more and eat a healthy diet. It may sound cliché, but for those of us with Parkinson’s, a healthy lifestyle can improve our quality of life and help us manage symptoms and slow progression.

If you have Parkinson’s, I’ve compiled a list of activities that you may find helpful. Remember, before starting an exercise plan or changing your diet, make sure to consult with your medical team. Keep your goals simple and attainable. Tackle one thing at a time. Be patient with yourself. Include your family — a healthy lifestyle is for everyone!

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Do something for your health every day. Simple activities and one-minute meditations are a great way to start. There are exercises for all abilities and fitness levels, from chair exercises to high-intensity interval training.

Physical activities might include taking a walk, or tossing a ball from one hand to the other while standing or sitting. Try adding cognitive exercises to your daily regimen. For instance, toss the ball and spell your name.

You can also add resistance training with very light weights or bands. Water bottles or cans of soup can serve as dumbbells. A dish towel pulled tight between your hands can be used as well. Be creative.

A few things to keep in mind: Choose something appropriate for your fitness level that you enjoy, and try new activities. If you can exercise with friends, a spouse, or other people with Parkinson’s, they can hold you accountable and help you stick with it. That’s a win for everyone!

The Davis Phinney Foundation for Parkinson’s and the Brian Grant Foundation offer additional resources and tips.


Researchers are discovering that mindfulness is helpful in managing Parkinson’s. It can relieve stress and anxiety, and improve your mood. Some useful tools are apps, books, soft music, and breathing techniques.

Healthy eating

Drinking enough water to stay hydrated and maintaining a well-balanced diet can be challenging. Finding ways to simplify cooking can make this easier and less stressful.

Start with a few simple recipes that contain few ingredients but are packed with vitamins. Use precut meats and vegetables as a shortcut.

Try new things and mix them up. Hard-boiled eggs or smoothies can make for a healthy meal at any point during the day. It’s breakfast for dinner!

Another option is meal delivery services, which conveniently send you the ingredients for several meals. You can tailor the meals to your diet, and choose how many you want.

Keep it simple, and you can be successful. It is possible to pursue a healthy lifestyle with Parkinson’s. Visit the Parkinson’s News Today Forums and let us know how you are choosing to be healthy in 2022.


Note: Parkinson’s News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. The opinions expressed in this column are not those of Parkinson’s News Today or its parent company, BioNews, and are intended to spark discussion about issues pertaining to Parkinson’s disease.

Paranoia vs. Anxiety: Understanding the Differences – Healthline

While paranoia and anxiety may share some overlapping symptoms and can even co-occur at times, they are not the same. There are important clinical differences between the two disorders.

Knowing the differences and getting an appropriate diagnosis will help you find effective treatment options.

Read on to find out more about paranoia and anxiety.

Paranoia is a thought process that causes an irrational mistrust of other people due to beliefs of persecution. This can sometimes occur in dementia, as well as in people who misuse certain drugs. Symptoms of paranoia can include:

  • mistrust of others
  • feeling disbelieved or misunderstood
  • feeling persecuted or victimized when no threat is present
  • isolation
  • constant stress related to beliefs about others

Anxiety is a natural response to stress. It’s typically a feeling of nervousness.

If feelings of anxiety are extreme, disproportionate, or long lasting, it might be an anxiety disorder instead of typical anxiety. Regular anxiety does not interfere with your daily life, but anxiety disorders do.

Over 40 million adults in the United States live with an anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders include:

Symptoms can include:

  • increased heart rate
  • fast breathing
  • trouble concentrating
  • restlessness
  • insomnia

A main difference between paranoia and anxiety is that with paranoia, there are delusional beliefs about persecution, threat, or conspiracy.

In anxiety, these thought processes are not generally present. Paranoia is characterized by distrust in others and their motives. This is generally not found in anxiety.

Paranoia and anxiety can arise from each other. Paranoia can cause significant fear and anxiety based on a person’s belief in the delusions, and anxiety may lead to paranoia. However, this is not always the case.

Both can cause similar bodily feelings like racing heart or feeling nervous, but the thought processes for each condition are different.

Each condition may have similar treatment options, like therapy, medication, or both. However, the focus of this treatment is different for each condition, and the medications are not necessarily the same.

Accurate diagnosis is important for any mental health condition, especially when it comes to conditions that share some similarities, like paranoia and anxiety.

Diagnosis is a layered process in order to rule out any other conditions.


Before making any kind of diagnosis, your doctor will do a complete physical exam to rule out any underlying medical conditions that could be causing paranoia, like dementia.

They will also document your personal history to collect information about your health, behaviors, and lifestyle. This information may be an important factor in paranoia. For example, drug use may cause paranoia.

Your doctor may also order blood tests to check for any medical conditions that could be causing your symptoms.

They may also do some interviews or assessments in order to understand your thought processes and use the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) criteria to make a diagnosis of a paranoid-type disorder.


A physical exam is typically done in order to rule out illnesses that may be causing your anxiety. The doctor will also take a personal history to get more information about your:

  • symptoms
  • functioning
  • health behaviors
  • lifestyle

They may order a variety of tests to also rule out other medical conditions with symptoms that mimic anxiety symptoms.

The DSM-5 has certain criteria for anxiety disorders, and you may be given some questionnaires or tests that will then be reviewed. These can include:

Your healthcare professional will also use the DSM-5 to evaluate your symptoms to make an informed diagnosis.

There are various treatments available for both paranoia and anxiety. Treatment often depends on the cause of the disorder and the severity of it. Treatment plans can vary among people.


Psychotherapy (talk therapy) and medication are two common treatments for paranoia. Psychotherapy helps people with paranoia:

  • develop coping skills
  • build trust in others
  • gain the tools they need to manage their emotions

Atypical antipsychotic medications or anti-anxiety medication may help relieve symptoms. This is especially true for those with paranoid schizophrenia.

If the paranoia is related to drug use, supportive treatment is given until the effects of the drug wear off. Then, a drug treatment program is typically recommended.


While normal anxiety passes on its own, anxiety disorders do not. Treatment can help manage anxiety disorders.

Anxiety disorders are typically treated with psychotherapy, medication, or both. Psychotherapy is tailored to the person’s specific needs and triggers, so a variety of types of psychotherapy can be used. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is often used because it helps a person identify and challenge the distorted thoughts that cause anxiety.

Medication is not a cure for anxiety disorders, but it can help manage symptoms. Some common medications prescribed to treat anxiety are:

The good news is that, like many mental health conditions, paranoia and anxiety can be treated and managed, helping you lead a full life. While they cannot be cured, they can be managed.

Paranoia and anxiety can both be found in anxiety disorders, and although they share some similarities, they are very different conditions. Getting an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment is important in order to address the unique thought processes and symptoms in each.

The Long Bodybuilding Tradition of Overtraining – Muscle & Fitness

In the long history of bodybuilding tradition bodybuilders trained like weightlifters. They were weightlifters or strongmen who lifted weights and who began over time to be as concerned about what they looked like instead of or in addition to how much they could lift.

This trend accelerated in the 1930s with the advent of “Physical Culture” contests in which athletes with obvious aesthetic muscularity from weight training had a distinct advantage in physical development. These events involved things like some kind of athletic performance and sometimes public speaking, but by 1939 the emphasis shifted to focus on judging muscular development as the competitors flexed and then did a personal posing routine – in other words, bodybuilding as we know it today.

Some bodybuilders in the 1940s still did things like gymnastics and the kind of hand-balancing you see in vintage photos of the original Muscle Beach in Santa Monica, but through the 1950s there was more emphasis on the kind of bodybuilding posing we still see today such as side chest or double-biceps shots. However, the training routines of this era remained pretty much the same: mostly working the entire body in one workout three times a week as that of a weightlifter. But gradually a more modern system evolved, using techniques that Joe Weider would codify as “The Weider System.” These included split-system training, working only part of the body in any workout; combining two-joint power exercises and one-joint isolation movements; peak contraction, supersets, and using a wide variety of different exercises for each body part.

Young Arnold Schwarzenegger in California
When he first came on the scene in the 60s, Arnold had lots of muscle and in the ’70s he combined size and definition to win the Olympia Courtesy of Gene Mozee

During the 1960s, thanks to these new techniques, plus a more advanced approach to dieting (no more drinking lots of whole milk, for example), bodybuilders began to appear on stage much more muscular and defined, rather than just big and smooth. This trend continued through the 1970s until we began to see extremely ripped competitors, defined but often way too depleted (in large part to extreme dehydration and ketosis diets). But also because of overtraining.

Overtraining, as far as bodybuilding is concerned, comes from training too hard, too often, or too long and not giving muscles enough time to rest, recuperate and grow. Training stimulates the growth that doesn’t take place until you are resting and recovering. In the 60s and 70s, bodybuilders began to exercise as if the more sets and reps you did the bigger you got. As a result, we began to see very muscular and defined competitors, but not at all big compared to most pro bodybuilders today.

2021 Ms. Olympia Winner Andrea Shaw performing a dumbbell workout
Ms. Olympia, Andrea Shaw demonstrates excellent form doing dumbbell side laterals. Wings Of Strength

An example would be Arnold Schwarzenegger. At over 6’ tall, Arnold as a young man weighed in something like 255 or 260 pounds. At his best in the 1970s, he was on stage weighing 235 pounds. Very small by modern standards and very small if you consider his obvious genetics for muscle. Why was this the case? If you compare the two versions of Arnold’s Encyclopedia of Modern Bodybuilding, one describing how he trained in his early years and the other his recommendations for the newer techniques that have evolved over the decades. One of the major differences is training volume and how much rest you need to avoid overtraining. He now recommends shorter sessions of high-intensity training, fewer set and reps than back in the day, and plenty of time to rest and recuperate between workouts.

Bodybuilding training should be like a series of sprints, not long-distance running. If you work out intensely enough, you quickly outpace the ability of your body to deliver fresh oxygen to the muscles. This is anaerobic activity. You feel the “burn” as lactic acid builds up in the muscles. At this point, you need to stop and rest and allow the muscle to recover. But these muscles do not fully recover in a short time. So, you are still fatigued when you do your subsequent sets for those muscles or that muscle group.

But then you need time between workouts for the body to totally recover. This varies according to the muscles worked. The biceps recover faster than any other muscle group; the lower back the slowest. Legs take more time to rest and recover than back or shoulders.

It is also a fact that in bodybuilding tradition bodybuilders continue to do more sets and exercises than necessary to develop any individual muscle or body part. For example, dealing with a simple muscle group like the biceps, all these muscles do is curl the arms – contraction from point of origin at the shoulder to point of insertion in the forearm and bend the elbow joint.

When you do biceps dumbbell or barbell curls, cable curls, machine curls, or concentration curls you are essentially doing the same movement over and over and over. There are some differences between lifting a free weight where joint stabilization is necessary and curls on a machine where it is not, the biceps are essentially contracting through the same range of motion multiple times. A couple of biceps exercises is one thing; four or five are quite different. The biceps are so comparatively small that it is easy to overtrain them with too many sets and reps.

Now, there has been an alternate approach to training popular with many. This follows the principles promoted by Arthur Jones, developer of Nautilus, and involves very “heavy-duty” and low rep workouts – including forced reps and negatives and forced negatives. If you were promoting a Nautilus gym, this resulted in members going through a circuit fairly quickly, getting off the machines and leaving room for another group of members to get their own circuits in. This allowed for a gym to increase its number of active members. But this is not the most effective and efficient method of developing a competitive bodybuilding physique.

Lee Haney working out with dumbbell concentration curl
By the time Lee Haney came along in the 1980s, there was much less overtraining in their workouts than in previous decades. Bill Dobbins

There have been bodybuilders who have claimed to have built their physiques using these principles, like Mike Mentzer and Casey Viator, but they had already created muscular physiques using the traditional method before they ever saw a Nautilus machine. Dorian Yates won multiple Mr. Olympia titles using this approach to training, but the stress tore his body apart – a penalty he was aware of but willing to pay in order to become a major champion.

So, what is the most effective and efficient way of training to build muscle? According to powerlifting champion Dr. Fred Hatfield (Dr. Squat), it involves contracting the muscle against just enough resistance for just enough reps – or “Time Under Tension.” The right amount of resistance is about 75% of your one-rep maximum. This allows you to do about 8 to 12 reps for upper body movements, lightly more for legs (better blood and oxygen delivery). You don’t really train the muscle directly; you program the nervous system. In order to send the right signals through the nervous system to create the stimulus needed to build muscle, you need to have about one minute total time under tension.

Legendary Mr. Olympia Ronnie Coleman with Joe Weider
Ronnie Coleman was one of the strongest competitors, but trained as a modern bodybuilder, not like a weightlifter. Bill Dobbins

Each rep is only about a second long. So, a total of a minute TUT is achieved by the familiar three to four sets of three to four exercises per body part.

There is also the fact that contracting a muscle against resistance is what stimulates it to grow. Lowering a weight does not have the same result. It just puts a lot of stress on joints and connective tissue.

Remember, progressive resistance training can be used to create a variety of different responses in the body. Really heavy, low rep training is best for developing thick muscle and maximum strength. Using less weight and a lot of repetitions results in a small, leaner, and well-defined physique like that of a gymnast.

This can vary quite a lot depending on individual genetics. There have been some athletes who have developed a lot of muscle and muscularity (but not enough for bodybuilding) doing nothing but calisthenics. I remember being in high school when nobody was training with weights. There were some teenage classmates who were genetically big and muscular and those of us who were not. I wasn’t built for football, or I opted for baseball.

The effect that bodybuilders are looking for is big, round and well-shaped muscle and extreme muscularity. And that’s why they need to avoid over-training – not too many sets and reps, not too much weight, and plenty of time between workouts to allow the body to rest, recuperate and grow.

If you look at the progress in performance in sports in general, from tennis, golf, and baseball to track or boxing, there are two factors that have allowed this to happen. The first is the improvement in equipment. Running shoes are like springs that allow for more energy in each stride. Golf clubs and tennis rackets look very little like what they did 30 or 40 years ago.

But the most important factor is strength and conditioning techniques, which have produced athletes with much greater physical abilities than in the past. Barry Bonds may have been caught using anabolics, but he was also doing 300-pound bench presses. Tiger Woods was the first modern golfer to work hard on weight training and now all the young competitors have followed suit.

And one reason the current bodybuilders tend to be so much bigger than in the past is they have learned to train more efficiently and economically, in a way that creates maximum stimulation for muscle growth and allows for all the time necessary to rest, recuperate and grow.

Behind The Scene of the final five Mr. Olympia contestants

Help Me with Anxiety After Eating –

Feelings of anxiety can dampen the satisfaction gained by eating a tasty meal, but there are ways to cope.

Being worried or anxious can sometimes make you lose your appetite. But what about experiencing anxiety after eating?

For some people, meals aren’t always pleasurable experiences. Instead, they can be precursors to feelings of concern, uneasiness, and apprehension.

Feelings of anxiety can be different for everyone.

If you’re feeling uneasy after eating, you might also experience other symptoms of anxiety, such as:

  • irritability
  • nausea
  • difficulty concentrating
  • muscle tension
  • fatigue
  • sleeplessness
  • uncontrollable feelings of worry
  • sweating
  • elevated heart rate
  • shortness of breath
  • trembling
  • choking sensation
  • overwhelming sense of dread or doom

You may be wondering why your anxiety increases after you eat.

Anxiety after eating may be a symptom of many conditions. Sometimes, it may just be a reflection of your emotional state at the moment.

Circumstantial anxiety, also known as situational anxiety, can occur when you’re focused on something specific, like traveling, a competitive event, or an important business meeting.

Feeling anxiety after you eat lunch, for example, may not be so out of place if you’ve got a big presentation that afternoon.

Other possible reasons for feeling anxiety after eating include:

  • Digestive tract imbalances. Research suggests inflammation and microbial imbalances in the digestive system can contribute to symptoms of anxiety.
  • Presence of an eating disorder. Eating disorders like anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder are often accompanied by food-related anxiety.
  • Conditioned taste aversion. Research suggests you may develop conditioned responses based on past experiences. If you became sick after eating a certain food, you may never feel good about that food again.
  • Food sensitivities and allergies. Twenty-year research data shows food-related anxiety is often associated with fear of encountering certain foods that may cause negative reactions.
  • Personal expectations. Guilt and worry about indulging at mealtime or eating when you’re not hungry may cause anxiety.
  • Foods high in sugar and fat. A 2013 research review suggests diets high in fat and sugar, and with high palatability, were linked to symptoms of anxiety in animal models.
  • High glycemic index foods. Observational evidence suggests high glycemic index foods, like white rice and french fries, may increase symptoms of anxiety.
  • Hypoglycemia. Low blood sugar, known as hypoglycemia, can occur after eating. It’s followed by insulin production and an increase in epinephrine, which may be associated with symptoms of anxiety.
  • Social anxiety. If you live with social anxiety, you may experience anxiety symptoms while dining with others.

Treatment of anxiety after eating may require the guidance of a healthcare team. Anxiety itself is often a symptom, not just a condition. More serious concerns may be at hand that need treatment.

While you work with a healthcare professional to uncover the cause of your anxiety after eating, you can manage symptoms by trying the following:

Log your food patterns

Keeping track of what you eat and how it makes you feel can help you identify patterns and avoid foods that may be linked to feelings of anxiety.

Take a probiotic

A 2020 meta-analysis of 10 studies indicates probiotics may help alleviate symptoms of depression among people with depressive and anxiety disorders.

While researchers conclude more research is needed to consider probiotics a therapy for anxiety, your doctor can help you decide whether a probiotic might be right and safe for you.

Practice self-compassion

If anxiety after eating may be related to guilt or personal expectations, practicing self-compassion might help.

Self-compassion is the ability to forgive and care for yourself, rather than being self-critical or punishing about food decisions.

Of course, this may be easier said than done. But research says it’s worth a try: A 2010 study linked self-compassion to lower levels of anxiety and depression.

Find ways to relax in the moment

Since anxiety after eating occurs at a very specific time, finding ways to relax in the moment may help take the edge off what you’re experiencing.

Many breathing techniques, meditation strategies, and focus exercises can all be done after eating, no matter where you are.

Speak with a mental health professional

While your primary care doctor can help you address any physical challenges contributing to food-related anxiety, some factors may also require the expertise of a mental health professional.

Treating underlying mental health causes is one of the best ways to manage and relieve symptoms.

You’re not alone if you experience anxiety after eating.

Eating disorders, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions may contribute to postmeal anxiousness.

What you’re experiencing and why you’re experiencing it are unique to you. You may be worried about looming obligations, stressed about your meal, or have a food intolerance you don’t know about yet.

Developing relaxation skills and food journaling habits can help manage symptoms while you explore food-related anxiety with your healthcare team.

Five Ways to Have a Healthy Heart – Baylor College of Medicine Blog Network – Baylor College of Medicine News

For many people, the beginning of a new year can represent a fresh start on health goals. When you focus on losing weight, exercising more, eating healthy and lowering stress, all of these actions have the added bonus of improving your heart health. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle is also key in lowering your risk for heart disease and heart attacks.

An illustration of an EKG readout with a cartoon heart insideAs you think about the new year and everything you are thankful for, here are five lifestyle tips your heart will thank you for, too.

  1. Stay active.

Heavy meals and stressful days may make you want to stay on the couch, but moderate exercise for 30 minutes at least three times per week can burn fat, lower cholesterol and put you on a path to improving your heart’s health.

  1. Take care of your gums.

Brushing your teeth and flossing daily can reduce the amount of bacteria in your mouth and gum inflammation, which lowers your risk of periodontal disease. This decrease in bacteria in the body may also improve your overall risk of heart disease.

  1. Make sleep a priority.

While it is easy to lose track of time during the course of a busy day, maintaining an appropriate day/night cycle and getting plenty of sleep will keep you at your best physically and mentally, and also help keep stress levels lower. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, adults who sleep less than seven hours each night are more likely to suffer from health problems, including heart attacks, asthma and depression.

  1. Stop smoking.

Using tobacco has negative side effects for all of your body’s systems and organs, but especially your heart. Over time, smoking tobacco damages the lining of your arteries, reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood and raises your blood pressure. In short, smoking may dramatically increase your risk of a stroke or heart attack.

  1. Avoid the wrong kinds of fats.

Maintain a well-balanced diet, including plenty of fruits and vegetables. Trans fats are a form of unsaturated fat that can raise your “bad cholesterol” (low-density lipoprotein) and increase your risk for heart disease. Remember, it isn’t about what you eat in a single meal; it’s the overall pattern of your food choices each day that counts.

Coronary and other types of heart disease can cause heart attacks but making healthy lifestyle choices can definitely reduce your risk and improve your overall health.

Additional Resources

More ways to prevent heart disease.

Learn more about the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery

Visit the Healthcare page to learn more about cardiothoracic procedures and treatments.

By Dr. Alexander Schutz, assistant professor of surgery in the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Baylor College of Medicine